Revisiting the North Etiwanda Preserve

Sage Scrub Chaparral

Sage Scrub Chaparral

When I studied population biology in junior college we conducted our field work in a large expanse of land along the alluvial fan that drained the San Gabriel Mountains to the Inland Empire valley below. Our specific field site was a 750+ acre area containing coastal sage scrub and coastal sage chaparral plant communities that were intersected by riparian corridors of alder, willow and occasionally sycamore trees.

Coastal sage scrub is a type of ecoregion that is located along the southern and central coast of California. It is important because is an endangered ecosystem that contains many unique species that occur nowhere else in the world (endemic), a number of which are endangered species. Coastal sage scrub is imperiled because it is also located on highly valued coastal real estate and threatened by human development.

Coastal sage scrub occurs from sea level to 1500 feet in elevation, along the coastal and inland valley foothills where coastal fog moderates the climate. Habitat contains sparse, low-growing soft, aromatic shrubs that range from dull-green to gray-green in color. In hot, dry summer months, shrubs often lose their leaves and become dormant as an adaptation to drought tolerance. They become green and vibrant again when winter rains arrive.

Some characteristics species in coastal sage scrub communities include:

Federally recognized threatened and endangered species include the California gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica), the San Diego banded gecko (Coleonyx variegatus abbottii ), the cactus wren (Campylorhyncus brunneicapillus), Merriam kangaroo rat (Dipodomys merriami), flannel-mouthed sucker (Catostomus latipinnis), western patch-nosed snake (Salvadora hexalepis), and cheese-weed moth lacewing (Chrysoperla spp.). Thirteen plant species of the coastal sage scrub are also recognized as threatened or endangered. (1)

A few years later the area began rapidly developing and our field area was threatened by a series of housing developments. Through the efforts of many people who fought to see the area protected to stem the decline of chaparral and coastal sage communities, a 762 acre section was set aside as a reserve. The area lies between the developed portions to the south and the national forest to the north and is protected on the southern end by a very wide power transportation corridor that serves as a buffer between the two land uses.

Welcome Sign

Welcome Sign

After several years of being away from this site, I recently revisited it yesterday afternoon and was surprised to see signs pointing the way to the preserve as I drove to the parking area. I was further surprised to see a dozen cars in the parking area at 3 pm on a Tuesday. When I last visited the site, it was protected, but still the completely undeveloped area that few people ever ventured into.

Trail Map

I quickly saw that the preserve has since been enhanced with formal trails, interpretive signs, and a few scattered picnic sites. It was now a popular place for hiking due to its cultural and recreational significance. Many people were taking a new trail that lead to a side canyon that contained a waterfall and shade beneath the alder trees. Others hiked around the lower portion of the preserve stopping at gazebos and interpretive signs.

While it was strange to see so many people in a place I used to walk around without seeing a soul, I was thrilled to see that the plant communities I fondly remembered were still there and appeared to be thriving. Walking through the scrub and chaparral I was transported back in time to my first population biology class, awestruck by the sight and smell of white sage and asking myself the same questions about the distributions of the plants I encountered along my hike.

Walking along one of the trails I saw massive shifts in the vegetation communities along a 1-mile length. Vegetation changed from stands that were dominated by white sage, to stands co-dominated by chemise and buckwheat containing little white sage. Walk a little further and the vegetation became co-dominated by black sage and sagebrush. Along this stretch I could not detect a difference in soil texture or aspect. So the sudden shifts of vegetation may the result of secondary successional processes where fire and floods disturb the vegetation and a different plant community begins growing in the areas that were disturbed. The overall pattern looked like waves of different vegetation along the hillside that was fascinating and worthy of more examination. Some of those communities are shown in the photos below.

Preserve Facing North West

Preserve Facing NW

White Sage

White Sage

White Sage Community

White Sage Community

Chemise and Buckwheat

Chemise and Buckwheat

Black Sage and Sagebrush

Black Sage and Sagebrush

Alder Riparian Woodland

Alder Riparian Woodland

Intersecting what I used to think was scorching hot chaparral (I’ve since lived in Arizona, so I have a new definition of hot) are wonderfully different riparian habitats containing cool, lush, shade tolerant species and – water. Water is a powerful force in these regions, winter rains and spring meltwater can move large amounts of water down the mountain through these canyons. Occasional fires remove vegetation and later rains bring floods that break trees and push large granite boulders downstream too.  These processes cause regular disturbances in the canyons and adjacent lands, and the vegetation is always in some state of recovery. The dense canopy of alder trees in the canyon bottoms is evidence of that those areas were previously disturbed, new trees grew to replace those that were killed, but self-thinning has not yet completed restructuring the tree stand.

Riparian Waterfall

Riparian Waterfall

Alder Woodland

Alder Woodland

The Southern California coastal sage scrub and chaparral communities are a wonderful place to explore with very interesting ecology that is worthy of protection and study. I’m happy that the North Etiwanda Preserve exists and look forward to continued visits.

 

 

For more information about the North Etiwanda Preserve see: http://sbcnep.org/

Photos of common coastal sage scrub and chaparral plants (from the nearby Cal State San Bernardino campus) can be seen at: http://biology.csusb.edu/PlantGuideFolder/

Finally, more information about coastal sage scrub and chaparral can be found at: http://www.eoearth.org/article/California_coastal_sage_and_chaparral

Happy exploring !

(1) From: http://www.eoearth.org/article/California_coastal_sage_and_chaparral

Mobile Apps for Naturalists

Project Noah LogoSince nearly everyone carries a smartphone these days, we can now carry a small library worth of field guides with us inside our phones so we never miss an opportunity to identify an interesting organism. With this in mind, here are a few mobile applications that are today’s field ecologist or naturalist should definitely consider having on your smartphone.

Merlin – Merlin is the Cornell Laboratory for Ornithology’s new bird identification app. Answer five simple questions about what bird you’re seeing and Merlin will come up with a list of possibilities based on both the answers to your questions and your location. Merlin is able to make highly educated guesses using its database of more than 70 million observations from the eBird citizen-science project.

Journey North – The Journey North app engages students in a global study of wildlife migration and seasonal change. Focused for K-12 students, users record and submit their observations while they are in the field and share their own field observations with classmates across North America. Students can use the app to track the coming of spring through the migration patterns of monarch butterflies, robins, hummingbirds, whooping cranes, gray whales, bald eagles— and other birds and mammals; the budding of plants; changing sunlight; and other natural events. (iPhone, Android).

BirdLog– I have been wanting a good mobile field notebook application for birding for quite a while. I even went so far as to build my own database to sync between my phone and laptop. BirdLog, is better. Developed in cooperation with the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, BirdLog helps you record and submit your latest bird sightings from the field. Moreover, your sightings contribue to the eBird database and provide data for thousands of amateurs and scientists who study birds. Among its many features, BirdLog allows you to create lists even when there is no cell coverage, keeps a running total of the number of species on your checklist, and plots the exact location of your sightings using your phone’s GPS. (iPhone, Android)

Nature’s Notebook – The National Phenology Network (NPN) has just released the mobile apps for Android and iPhone that let you record phenology (the annual timing of events such as flowering) observations in the field. Fill out a very short form and submit your information for use by scientists everywhere. While many people and applications are set to record when events like flowering start, knowing when they stop is just as important, as it helps tell scientists whether the growing season is getting shorter or shifting. So, one important component of the Nature’s Notebook application is that you can also use it to collect when plants have yet to flower or have stopped flowering, are showing new leaves or have dropped their leaves. (iPhone, Android)

Leafsnap – You can use Leafsnap to help identify plants. Simply use the application to snap a photo of a leaf and it will be uploaded to their servers where sophisticated image recognition software will combine the leaf’s photo with your location (from your phone’s GPS) to suggest possible matching species. (iPhone, Android)

iBird – iBird is the definitive application for identifying birds. It loads the contents of several bird guides onto your phone, combining drawings, photos, recordings of bird calls, range maps and other information to help you lookup any bird and identify its species. iBird loads all of this information on your phone, so you can use it in areas with no internet access. With iBird, there’s really no need to carry a thick bird guide around anymore. (iPhone, Android)

National Audubon Mobile Field Guide Apps – The National Audubon Society offers a suite of applications for smartphones that contain field guides to birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, trees, wildflowers, and mushrooms. (iPhone, Android)

My Nature Animal Tracks – When all you have is evidence that an animal was present, you can use My Nature Animal Tracks to identify the animal by examining their tracks and scat using this handy app. (iPhone)

PhenoMap – Help scientists study changes in phenology (the annual timing of events such as flowering) by snapping photos of when natural plants in your area bloom. Fill out a very short form and upload your sighting to the University of Chicago and the National Phenology Network for inclusion into their phenology database. (iPhone)

ProjectNoah – Earn merit badges for being a citizen scientists and help the larger scientific community by logging your sitings of species in your neighborhood, on trails, etc. The information submitted by tens of thousands of citizen scientists is used to help study species diversity and distributions and other questions. (iPhone, Android)

These are just a few of the many exciting and helpful mobile applications that can assist your field excursions and reduce the number of field manuals you carry. While I’ve tried to introduce some very good and popular applications, this list is by no means complete. If you know an app that should be on this list, please add a comment below.